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Dawn of the cosmos: Seeing galaxies that appeared soon after the Big Bang

Arizona State University astronomers Sangeeta Malhotra and James Rhoads, working with international teams in Chile and China, have discovered 23 young galaxies, seen as they were 800 million years after the Big Bang. Long ago, about 300,000 years after the beginning of the universe (the Big Bang), the universe was dark. There were no stars…

Diet choice, reproduction of fruit flies affected by gut bacteria

Increasingly understood to be vital for wellbeing, gut microbiota are the trillion of microorganisms that live in the digestive tract of humans and other animals. Known to affect a range of physiological traits including development, immunity, nutrition and longevity, researchers are now investigating how manipulating gut microbiota might influence other aspects of health. Two new…

Holograms taken to new dimension

Technology developed by a team of University of Utah electrical and computer engineers could make the holographic chess game R2-D2 and Chewbacca played in “Star Wars” a reality. The team led by electrical and computer engineering associate professor Rajesh Menon has discovered a way to create inexpensive full-color 2-D and 3-D holograms that are far…

Gaining a few pounds may increase long-term heart failure risk

Gaining even a little weight over time may alter the structure and function of heart muscle, affecting long-term risk of heart failure, the Open Access Journal of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Researchers followed 1,262 adults (average age 44, 57 percent women, 44 percent black, 36 percent obese) who were free from heart disease…

Experts: One in three cases of dementia preventable

Managing lifestyle factors such as hearing loss, smoking, hypertension and depression could prevent one-third of the world’s dementia cases, the report also highlights the beneficial effects of nonpharmacologic interventions such as social contact and exercise for people with dementia. “There’s been a great deal of focus on developing medicines to prevent dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease,”…

A super-algae to save our seas? Genetic engineering species to save corals

Solutions to climate change, and particularly its effects on the ocean, are needed now more than ever. Coral bleaching caused by climate change is a huge threat to coral reefs. Recent extreme bleaching events have already killed corals worldwide and permanent destruction of reefs is projected within the century if immediate action is not taken….

Best measure of star-forming material in galaxy clusters in early universe

The international Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS) collaboration based at the University of California, Riverside has combined observations from several of the world’s most powerful telescopes to carry out one of the largest studies yet of molecular gasĀ  the raw material which fuels star formation throughout the universeĀ  in three of the…

Rush hour pollution may be more dangerous than you think

The first in-car measurements of exposure to pollutants that cause oxidative stress during rush hour commutes has turned up potentially alarming results. The levels of some forms of harmful particulate matter inside car cabins was found to be twice as high as previously believed. Most traffic pollution sensors are placed on the ground alongside the…

New type of soft, growing robot created

Imagine rescuers searching for people in the rubble of a collapsed building. Instead of digging through the debris by hand or having dogs sniff for signs of life, they bring out a small, air-tight cylinder. They place the device at the entrance of the debris and flip a switch. From one end of the cylinder,…

In saliva, clues to a ‘ghost’ species of ancient human

In saliva, scientists have found hints that a “ghost” species of archaic humans may have contributed genetic material to ancestors of people living in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The research adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that sexual rendezvous between different archaic human species may not have been unusual. Past studies have concluded that…

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