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‘Tree-on-a-chip’ passively pumps water for days

Trees and other plants, from towering redwoods to diminutive daisies, are nature’s hydraulic pumps. They are constantly pulling water up from their roots to the topmost leaves, and pumping sugars produced by their leaves back down to the roots. This constant stream of nutrients is shuttled through a system of tissues called xylem and phloem,…

Dead zones may threaten coral reefs worldwide

Dead zones affect dozens of coral reefs around the world and threaten hundreds more according to a new study by Smithsonian scientists Watching a massive coral reef die-off on the Caribbean coast of Panama, they suspected it was caused by a dead zoneĀ  a low-oxygen area that snuffs out marine lifeĀ  rather than by ocean…